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What is DNA/Genetic Testing?

Deoxyribonucleic acid, natively known as DNA is a hereditary material common in all human beings and present in most living organisms including plants.  Almost every cell in the human body has the same DNA which means the whole body system tends to have almost the same DNA and it is unique from that of others. Most times DNA is located in the cell nucleus of both plants and animals except such plants have more places the DNA can be located like the mitochondria and the chloroplasts. Information Guides Nigeria

Cost and Procedures to do DNA Test in Nigeria 2021
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Genetic/DNA Testing

Genetic or DNA testing is a type of medical test carried out to identify the closeness or matching in genetic similarities, chromosomes, and protein. A common understanding or use of DNA tests is to analyze, identify and interpret if a person is truly the biological father/mother of a child. 

Deoxyribonucleic (DNA) testing brings about the establishment of families or even a termination of some.

Types DNA Test and What it Reveals

Basically, we have three types of DNA tests that can be expanded as we continue discussing. They include Y-DNA testing, autosomal DNA testing, and mitochondrial DNA testing (mtDNA testing).

  • Y- DNA testing (Paternal Testing)

This is a genealogical DNA test that is used to explore a man’s patrilineal or direct father’s line ancestry. The Y-DNA testing can only be used for people with a Y chromosome to research and discover their ancestral paternal lineage. This is because the Y chromosome is usually passed directly from a person’s biological father by his father and so it goes for all generations.  

  • Mitochondrial DNA testing (Maternal Testing) 

This type of DNA testing is the direct opposite of Y-DNA testing. It is usually carried out for the purpose of discovering the ancestry line of someone in the maternal background i.e tracing the biological mother, grandmother, and all matrilineal ancestry of someone.

  • Autosomal DNA testing

Autosomal DNA testing is more complex and wide compared to Y-DNA and mtDNA testing. Autosomal DNA testing is usually done to analyze most of the DNA that comes from both parents (mother and father) i.e the 22 pairs that make up the chromosome. 

The 22 DNA pairs gotten can help analyze to figure out the distant relative, origin, or even community a person is from. In summary, it is a complex type of DNA testing and comprises the information of both the mtDNA and Y-DNA testing.

Importance of DNA Testing

The importance of DNA Testing is not only limited to identifying your origin (biological parent or lineage), we will get to find out more below;

  • Brings about a better understanding of one’s health status
  • Identify possible affection/contact to known disease

Knowing your DNA is one important thing as genetic samples in the result can be critically analyzed to know better about the family lineage health conditions giving you room to prepare before time or perhaps takes precautions. This is because most families have the same or similar genetic predisposition. Meaning there are some diseases that flow throughout the family lineage. 

How much does it Cost to get a DNA Test at the Hospital

The cost of DNA tests in Nigeria differs from hospitals and as well regions in the country the test was taken. Though on average, it cost between N70,000 to N150,000 to get one DNA test done in Nigerian hospitals.

Procedures to do DNA Test in Nigeria 

The procedures of DNA testing are not as complex or even easy as others might suggest. Though the most important thing is that you have got your test done with the test results right in your palm. Either way, let us get to know the procedure involved in carrying out DNA testing. 

FOR INDIVIDUALS

  •  For DNA Paternity Test

The DNA paternity test is usually carried out after the baby has been delivered. This means that the test cannot be carried when the baby is still in the mother’s womb.

After the baby is born, all you need to do is to take the baby to a trusted and recommended DNA centre for the test to be carried out. A sample of blood or maybe a cheek swap might be requested for the conduction of the test. 

  • mtDNA Test

DNA maternity tests can be carried out anytime the lady is ready to discover her ancestral lineage to find out where she truly originated from (mother > grandmother and so on).

  • Autosomal DNA

The testing procedure here is similar to that of the DNA maternity test (mtDNA test). Since it is mostly done by grown-ups, the testing process can be carried out anytime the individual is ready. 

FOR HOSPITALS

  • Sample collection

This is the first procedure management will take in conducting the DNA test. Sample collection involves collecting your blood and swap of the inside of your cheek.

  • Lyse Cells

The process in the procedure for conducting DNA tests is used in breaking down the cells of the sample collected.

  • Separation

Separation is the process of partitioning the DNA. There are lots of methods to do that but the most common is the electrophoresis method. 

The PCR method is used for copying the samples after separation and then prepare for testing the sampled DNA

This is a process of finding genetic markers in the DNA that signifies a relationship.

Matching is the final process carried out in DNA testing. After the testing has been done and the DNA marker has been discovered, they will be matched against unknown DNA samples to identify if it matches with the donor and then other procedures will be executed to reveal the DNA results. 

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